Endoscopy is the insertion of a long, thin tube directly into the body to examine an internal organ or tissue closely. The endoscope allows the doctor to see the inside of the body without making a large incision. This minimizes the risk of infection and speeds up the healing process.
It consists of a long, flexible tube with a light source and a camera at the end. It can also be used for other tasks, including imaging and minor surgeries. Endoscopies are minimally invasive and involve openings in the body, such as the mouth or anus. Alternatively, they can also be inserted into small incisions, for example in the knee or belly. An action which is performed through a small incision and helped with special
instruments such as an endoscope is called minimally invasive surgery.
Because modern endoscopy is relatively low-risk, provides detailed images, and is quick to perform, it has proven incredibly useful in many areas of medicine. Currently, approximately 75 million endoscopies from trusted sources are performed in the China each year. In this article, we explain some types of endoscopy, why and how they are performed, the general procedure, how to clean, disinfect, and sterilize an endoscope, and the potential risks. Quick Facts About Endoscopy Here are some key points about endoscopy. Endoscopy is a quick and relatively safe procedure.
The first endoscope was developed in 1806. The main reasons for endoscopy are examination, confirmation and treatment. Endoscopy may be utilized in order to remove tumors or polyps from the digestive tract.
Types of Endoscopy
Endoscopy is useful for examining many systems within the human body; These areas include: Gastrointestinal: esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (esophagogastroduodenoscopy), small intestine (enteroscopy), large intestine/colon (colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy), bile duct, rectum (rectoscopy), and anus (anoscopy) Respiratory system: nose (rhinoscopy), lower respiratory tract (bronchoscopy) ear: otoscopy urinary tract: cystoscopy female reproductive tract (gynoscopy): cervix (colposcopy), uterus (hysteroscopy), fallopian tubes (fallopian tubes) through a small incision: abdominal or pelvic cavity (laparoscopy), in a joint (arthroscopy), chest organs (thoracoscopy and mediastinoscopy)
What is a capsule endoscopy?
Capsule endoscopy was developed in the mid-1990s and includes a wireless camera. The chamber is small enough to fit inside a capsule (about the size of a vitamin pill) so it can be swallowed. As the capsule travels through the digestive tract, it captures thousands of images that are transmitted to a device attached to a wearable belt. Capsule endoscopy takes pictures of the small intestine, a region that is difficult to image with standard endoscopy. It is also very useful for examining the lining of the small intestine and diagnosing Crohn’s disease. The capsule normally passes through the digestive system in 24 to 48 hours.
Although capsule endoscopy has been considered a sufficient alternative to esophagogastroduodenoscopy, there are limitations such as: B. Clear visualization and active movements that need to be monitored. Magnetic manipulation is used to fix this problem.
Preparing for an endoscopy
An endoscopy does not require an overnight stay in the hospital and usually only takes about 1 hour. The doctor would provide instructions on how to prepare for this procedure. Many types of endoscopy require the person to fast for approximately 12 hours, although this varies by type.
For procedures that examine the bowel, laxatives can be taken the night before to cleanse the system. Before the endoscopy, a doctor conducts an examination. It is important to mention all current medications (including dietary supplements) and any previous procedures.
Procedure of endoscopy
The procedure depends to some extent on the reason for the endoscopy. There are three main reasons for an endoscopy:
- Clarification: In the case of vomiting, abdominal pain, breathing difficulties, stomach ulcers, swallowing difficulties or gastrointestinal bleeding, for example, an endoscope can be used to find the cause.
- Confirming a Diagnosis: An endoscopy can perform a biopsy to confirm a diagnosis of cancer or other diseases.
- Treatment: An endoscope can treat diseases directly; For example, endoscopy may be used to cauterize (heat seal) a bleeding vessel or remove a polyp. Sometimes the endoscopy is combined with another procedure, such as B. an ultrasound.
It can be used to position the ultrasound probe near organs that may be difficult to see, such as the B. the pancreas. Modern endoscopes are sometimes equipped with sensitive lights that use narrowband imaging. This type of imaging uses specific blue and green wavelengths that allow the doctor to more easily detect precancerous lesions. An endoscopy is usually done while the person is conscious, although sometimes the person is given a local anesthetic (usually a numbing spray down the throat). The person is often sedated.
For endoscopy procedures where access is through the mouth, a mouth guard protects the teeth and lips when the tube is inserted.
Use of the endoscope in surgery
Endoscopy has evolved in recent years and allows for a number of forms of the operation with a modified endoscope. This makes the operation less invasive. Procedures such as removing the gallbladder, sealing and tying off the fallopian tubes, and removing small tumors from the digestive system or lungs are common today. A laparoscope is a modified endoscope used for minimally invasive surgery. (also known as laparoscopic surgery).
Laparoscopic surgery requires merely a little incision and could be utilized for appendectomies (removal of the appendix), hysterectomies (removal of the uterus), and prostatectomies (removal of prostate tissue). With this technique, people lose less blood during and after surgery and can recover much faster compared to traditional surgical procedures.(+) Risks and Side Effects of EndoscopyEndoscopy is a relatively safe procedure. However, there are certain risks involved. The risks depend on the area
Risks of endoscopy include:
- Excessive sedation, although sedation is not always necessary
- Short-term feeling of fullness after the procedure
- Mild spasms in the examination area, most often when additional procedures are performed at the same time (infections are usually minor and can be treated with antibiotics)
- persistent pain in the area of endoscopy
- perforation or tear of the lining of the stomach or esophagus, a rare but serious complication of Internal bleeding, usually minor and sometimes treatable by endoscopic cautery complications related to pre-existing conditions.
Any of the following symptoms should be reported to a doctor:
- dark-colored stools
- difficulty breathing
- persistent severe abdominal pain
- chest pain
- vomiting blood
Recovery through endoscopy
Recovery depends on the type of procedure. An upper endoscopy, which allows the doctor to examine the upper gastrointestinal tract, is used to monitor the person after the procedure
This usually lasts about 1 hour while the effects of a sedative medicine wear off. Usually, the person should not work or drive for the rest of the day due to the sedating effects of the medications used to prevent pain. Any cognitive effects should be reported to a physician before or after leaving the procedure area. There can be pain. This type of endoscopy can cause swelling and a sore throat. However, these usually resolve quickly.
Endoscopic procedures are typically minimally invasive and can be performed through the mouth, anus, or through small incisions. These procedures can be used to screen, diagnose, or treat a variety of medical conditions.
These procedures have a low complication rate and the person is usually discharged within a few hours. Some side effects may occur, such as B. Sore throat or swelling. However, they usually resolve quickly. A person should speak to their doctor if persistent effects occur.
How do you Clean, Disinfect, and Sterilize an Endoscope
Medical instruments, endoscopes must be carefully cleaned, disinfected and sterilized after each use. The care and cleanliness of your equipment protects the health and safety of you and your patients. The following is a general guide to cleaning endoscopy equipment for your reference. Be sure to follow manufacturer guidelines and any governmental guidelines in your area when using and cleaning endoscopy equipment.
Patient Safety Assurance
Because endoscopes are used to diagnose and treat health problems, they must be kept clean and sterile. One reason for this is to prevent infection from microbial growth. Another reason is to limit the spread of an infection you may already have. Transmission of infection is a major risk in healthcare settings. Whether an endoscope is used for diagnosis or treatment, sterilization of the endoscope protects the patient from infection from bacteria, viruses, and other microbes that may be present on medical devices. It also save the endoscopic surgeon and
future patients from infection from microbes that have become attached to the endoscope during or after an endoscopy of a previous patient.
First, all residues must be removed from the removed endoscope for more effective cleaning, disinfection and sterilization. Any retained residue can interfere with or even inactivate chemical solutions used to kill microorganisms. Waste may include proteins, carbohydrates, fats, chemical salts, and other substances derived from blood or body fluids.
Clean the immediately after removing the endoscope from your patient, have a cloth or sponge soaked in a special cleaning agent. This cloth or sponge should be discarded or sterilized between patients.
The equipment must then be taken to a designated cleaning area. Flush the endoscope with the detergent until clear and then aspirate with air. The air and water channels must be properly flushed. The endoscope must then be placed in a closed container and taken to a reprocessing area for disinfection and sterilization. This area should be in a completely separate room where the procedure was performed to minimize the risk of contamination.
Once the endoscopy device is in the specified cleaning area, it must be cleaned manually. Fill a container with a solution of freshly prepared water and a non-sudsing, pH-neutral, medical-grade endoscope detergent. Follow the manufacturer’s directions for dilution and use. While the endoscope is immersed in the solution, brush and clean it with a small, soft brush and non-abrasive
lint-free cleaning tools. Brush all the endoscope’s channels with compatible tools.
Rinse and brush again until there is no visible residue. Some soaking may be required. Finally, rinse well and use compressed air to remove all water from the endoscope. Dry with a soft, lint-free cloth.
Disinfection and Sterilization Disinfection and sterilization kill any microbes found on endoscopy equipment. Disinfectants and sterilants should be used according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and their effectiveness tested regularly. This part of the cleaning process can be done manually or with an automated preprocessor. For manual disinfection and sterilization, the endoscope and all detachable parts must be immersed in the solution and the disinfectant flushed through all channels without leaving air pockets. The endoscope must remain in the solution for the recommended time.
Before withdrawing the endoscope, all channels should be purged with air. Then it must be rinsed, dried, rinsed with alcohol and properly stored. With automatic disinfection, the endoscope must be cleaned manually before being placed in the machine. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions and complete the entire cleaning cycle from start to finish, avoiding any interruptions, as this would require a fresh start. Small channels in some endoscopy instruments may need to be manually reprocessed if the device is unable to-do so. The last step should be an alcohol rinse, which may need to be done by hand. Equipment should be carefully dried and properly stored to protect against contamination.
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